First European-SouthAmerican School for Embedded Systems - Programme

Networks for Embedded Control Systems

Networks for Embedded Control Systems

Luis Almeida
Electronic Systems Lab – IEETA, DETI
Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal

Course overview
The course will address the growing role of networks in control applications, from embedded control to process control, which led to the wide dissemination of distributed computer control systems (DCCS). Starting from the network, which is the central component in a DCCS, the course will focus on communication issues and associated timing aspects. This will allow understanding the impact that architectural options in the network side have on the services delivered to the application. Then, the course will look at the application side of DCCS and analyse the timing requirements and the impact of deviations. This latter aspect will build the motivation for higher operational flexibility in current DCCS, together with higher resource efficiency. The course will then address the impact imposed on the system architecture by such requirement for higher flexibility. Finally, several examples, real and simulated, will be used to illustrate the concepts presented along the course.

Course contents
  1. Introduction to real-time communications
    • Basic concepts
    • Timing parameters
    • Temporal control
  2. Issues on real-time communication
    • Physical layer issues
    • Data link layer issues
    • Traffic scheduling issues
    • End-to-end delays
  3. Paradigmatic protocols
    • WorldFIP
    • TTP/C
    • CAN
    • Ethernet
  4. The perspective of Control Applications
    • Temporal requirements
    • Performance under timing deviations
    • The CAMBADA robots case study
  5. Trend towards flexible control systems
    • Architectural requirements
    • Adapting the sampling period
    • Open control systems

Support bibliography:
  1. Richard Zurawski (ed). The Industrial Communication Systems Handbook. CRC Press, 2005.
    • P. Pedreiras, L. Almeida. Approaches to Enforce Real-Time Behavior in Ethernet.
  2. B. Bouyssounouse, J. Sifakis (eds.) Embedded Systems Design, The ARTIST Roadmap for Research and Development. LNCS 3436, Springer 2005.
    • Section 24 on Networks, within Part III: Adaptive Real-Time Systems for QoS Management
  3. P. Veríssimo, L. Rodrigues. Distributed Systems for System Architects. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.
  4. J. Liu. Real-Time Systems. Prentice-Hall, 2000.
  5. Krishna and Shin. Real-Time Systems. McGraw Hill, 1997.
  6. Kopetz H.. Real-Time Systems: Design Principles for Distributed Embedded Applications. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.

  1. Redell Ola, Elkhoury Jad, Törngren Martin. The AIDA tool-set for design and implementation analysis of distributedreal-time control systems. Microprocessors and Microsystems, Volume 28, Issue 4 , 20 May 2004, Pages 163-182.
  2. P. Koopman. Critical Embedded Automotive Networks. IEEE Micro, IEEE Press, July/August 2002.
  3. Thomesse J.-P.. A Review of the Fieldbuses. Annual Reviews in Control, 22:35-45, 1998.
  4. Törngren Martin (1998). Fundamentals of implementing Real-time Control applications in Distributed Computer Systems. J. of Real-time Systems, 14, p. 219-250. Kluwer Academic Publishers
  5. Malcolm N. and W. Zhao. Hard Real-Time Communication in Multiple-Access Networks. Journal of Real-Time Systems, 8(1): 35-78, 1995.
  6. Hong, S.H. (1995). Scheduling Algorithm of Data Sampling Times in the Integrated Communication and Control Systems. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 3(2): 225-230.
  7. Tindell K., A. Burns and J. Wellings. Analysis of Hard Real-Time Communication. The Journal of Real-Time Systems. 9:147-171, Kluwer Academic Press. 1995.
  8. Cruz R.L., A calculus for network delay, part i: Network elements in isolation. IEEE Trans. Information Theory, 37(1):114:131, January 1991.
  9. Cruz R.L., A calculus for network delay, part ii: Network analysis. IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, 37(1):132:141, January 1991.

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