An important class of industrially applied model-based methodologies is those based on a synchronous execution model (e.g. Lustre, Esterel, and Signal). Other model-based approaches are built around a class of popular languages exemplified by Matlab Simulink. Originating from the design automation community, SystemC also chooses synchronous hardware semantics, but allows for the introduction of asynchronous execution and interaction mechanisms from software (C++). More recent modeling languages, such as UML and AADL, attempt to be more generic in their choice of semantics and thus bring extensions in two directions: independence from a particular programming language; and emphasis on system architecture as a means to organize computation, communication, and constraints.

Design often involves the use of multiple models that represent different views of a system at different levels of granularity. Some transformations between models can be automated; at other times, the designer must guide the model construction. While the compilation and code generation for functional requirements is often routine, for non-functional requirements, such as timing, the separation of human-guided design decisions from automatic model transformations is not well understood
By far the most common validation technique applied in embedded industrial today is based on rather ad-hoc and manual (hence quite error-prone) testing. Given that some 30-50% of the overall development time and cost are related to testing activities it is clear that the impact of improved validation technologies is substantial.

Whereas validation techniques for assessing functional correctness have reached a certain level of maturity and industrial acceptance, there is a need for mature validation techniques addressing quantitative being accessible from within industrial tool-chains.

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