Research and Integration Activities for the "Real Time Components" cluster

Forums with Specific Industrial Sectors
JPRA-NoE Integration

In the first period of ARTIST2, it was found by the two clusters HRT and Components that meetings and forums with engineers from industry are a needed support for novel research directions and new fruitful activities to be undertaken. Collecting issues from industry in the two key sectors of automobile and aeronautics and interacting with high-level engineers from these industrial sectors will be the duty of this JPRA. Results will consist in a collection of findings and new issues and challenges that will in some sense complement and update the work already performed with the ARTIST Roadmap.


European automotive and aeronautics industries are experiencing an exponential growth in functionality, with a drastic increase of innovations realized in software. The paradigm is shifting from an original “1 function = 1 ECU = 1 supplier” partitioning to distributed realizations of functions across multiple ECU’s involving multiple suppliers.
Several de-facto standards such as CAN, Flexray and the various OSEK extensions have found their way into series development. Model based development is increasingly gaining momentum, often involving automatic code generation. These processes are reaching substantial levels of maturity for single ECU implementations, including advanced capabilities for rapid prototyping and (hardware-in-the-loop) testing.
However, system-oriented design and virtual integration are supported only weakly, leading to late detection of integration problems. The OEM-supplier relation is mainly relying on textual initial requirements and well-established processes of delivering increasingly mature prototypes. Late requirement changes, incomplete initial requirements, or even inconsistent requirements are often leading to late design iterations or changes, with high-incurred costs.

Already today, privately funded key initiatives like Autosar demonstrate the commitment of this industrial sector to reducing costs. One way to achieve this is by harmonizing platforms and decoupling functional architecture design from target platforms.
While these initiatives are demonstrating the industrial pull in the required direction, they are only making the first move. Challenges required to obtain the targeted growth rates, and not yet achieved, include:
  • The need for boosting re-uses across all design levels. This requires component models capturing the complete space of non-functional constraints (time, dependability, safety, scheduling, resource consumptions), as well as functional and protocol aspects in order to achieve drastic cost reductions.
  • The need for ensuring high quality and optimizing electronics despite the exponential growth in system complexity. This requires strong advances in enhanced virtual (sub)system integration and analysis, in order to reduce the number of deep iteration loops. Since subsystems are typically developed by multiple suppliers, this entails the need to integrate models from different modeling tools.
  • The need to optimize cross-supplier development processes. This requires early assessment of risks caused by late requirement changes, fast turn-around times in integrating resulting changes, and design space exploration across boundaries of the supplier chain.

To summarize, large European systems industries must maintain their competitive position in the future. This requires improving substantially the entire OEM-supplier chain and the design methodology used to develop embedded systems. The methodology has to take into consideration that industry must completely revisit the way systems are decomposed into subsystems to facilitate development by suppliers, and integration by the OEMs. This move will require that virtual design (i.e., design based on computer modelling and analysis) be performed systematically to discover errors at early stages of systems development. Using virtual engineering will require changing the technology, skill set, and support make-up of industry in a profound way. This course of action will require mastering heterogeneity in large design flows involving concurrent activities. Therefore, we need deep innovations in architectural abstractions capturing functional and non-functional features, in formal modelling (semantic based integration of heterogeneous system models with component models covering all non-functional constraints), and in formal multi-viewpoint analysis covering functional, timeliness, safety, and dependability requirements performed across all system design abstraction levels.

Previous Work

Since this is a new activity, there is no previous work.

Problem Tackled in Year 2

The objective of this action is to reproduce more systematically the type of meeting and discussion forum the former HRT cluster held in Rome, in January 2005, where engineers from GM and BMW participated to the discussion on merging ET with TT. The minutes collected from this meeting were quite rich and useful for us in guiding our research activities. We think that this type of prospective activity must be sustained by the academic community, and we believe that ARTIST2 is the adequate place to handle it.
This year we focus our activities on the automotive sector. The meeting Beyond AUTOSAR was organized in Innsbruck, co-located with the industrial meeting Modellierung 2006. See below the detailed report. We summarize here the main issues in this industrial sector.

Automotive embedded systems have evolved enormously over the past decades. It is clear that a very large portion of innovation and improved functionality in vehicles is due to the advances in software and electronics (this portion is sometimes stated to be as high as 90%). A Mercedes car in 1986 contained six microprocessors; these were implemented as six stand-alone controllers (in the automotive industry referred to as ECUs, standing for Electronic Control Unit). In 1998 a corresponding Mercedes car contained some 60 microprocessor systems, together forming a distributed system including four networks (not to mention in addition some 113 electrical motors!).
Many of the ECUs of a modern vehicle are provided by external suppliers, who work with many different car companies (or OEMs: Original Equipment Manufacturers), providing similar parts. The role of the OEM is thus to provide specifications to the suppliers, so that the component will fit a particular car, and to integrate the components into a product. Traditionally, suppliers have developed physical parts, but in modern cars they also provide software. This constitutes a challenge for the OEMs since they have to test and verify systems including software. Moreover, the trend has been that OEMs have outsourced the development of many ECUs, implying that the OEMs are no longer in control of the actual behaviour of the car anymore. Because of this situation where subsystem suppliers provide ECUs and because of their desire to not disclose their expertise in e.g. brake control, the ECUs have been treated as black boxes that are not fully open to the OEMs. An implication of this is that new functions often are implemented as new ECUs – not exploiting the possibility to have several functions on the same ECU.

The current development trends in automotive software call for increasing standardization of the software structure in the nodes. The need to integrate software from different suppliers, supporting dependable real-time execution, and managing changes all call for a well-defined structure. The node architecture (see Figure 1) includes several important parts:

Figure 1. Typical software architecture of an ECU.

Diagnostic kernels provide an implementation of the diagnostic services that each node must implement to act as a client towards the off-board diagnostic tool. It relies on the communication software to access the networks and on the operating system to schedule diagnostic activities so that it does not interfere with the application functionality. Network communication software provides a layer between the hardware and the application software, so that communication can be described at a high level of abstraction in the application, regardless of the low-level mechanisms employed to send data between the nodes. Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOS) provide services for task scheduling and synchronization.

All these components interact with each other and with the application, and must therefore have standardized interfaces, and at the same time provide the required flexibility. To minimize the use of hardware resources, the components are configurable to only include the parts that are really necessary in each particular instantiation.
For future system development, an important aspect is to create a more flexible software partitioning. The main use for this is probably not to find the optimal partitioning for each car on a given platform, since that would create too much work on the verification side, but to allow parts of the software to be reused from one platform to the next. This puts even higher demands on the node architecture, since the application must be totally independent from the hardware, through a standardized interface that is stable over time. Therefore, further standardization work is pursued within the Autosar initiative.

Automotive embedded systems are further characterized by the following:
  • Users. In contrast to many other advanced machines, such as airplanes and medical devices, automotive products are utilized by most people. This has an important impact on the usability, service and dependability expected of the products.
  • Dependability requirements. Automotive embedded systems have a fairly long life time and users expect the vehicles to function over extended periods of time, leading to strict requirements on reliability, availability and maintenance. Automotive control systems are safety related. Not only is the control system required to operate reliably; the design of the system and its context must be carefully analyzed to consider what might go wrong, and what the system should do in such cases. In addition, security is becoming of increasing importance because of the possibilities and relative ease with which embedded control systems behavior can be modified, e.g. by replacing memories/chips or by network intrusion.
  • Heterogeneity. Automotive embedded systems are heterogeneous. They handle many different types of tasks with widely varying requirements. For example, the motion control related ECUs include functionality that can be characterized as hybrid systems, being composed of components that are best described by continuous-time dynamic systems and finite state machines. Motion control is one central part of ECS. Although it’s absolute size e.g. in terms of lines of code typically is relatively small compared to other functionality, the motion control functionality is coming along with real-time constraints, environment dependencies, and safety criticality. To handle this heterogeneity the embedded systems are normally structured into a system platform and applications, each with their own hierarchy in order to facilitate changes and reuse. Responsibilities of the system platform include for example logging, communication services and drivers for sensor readings. For the application there will be activities such as motion control, estimation of the environment state, and human machine communication.
  • Real-time constraints. These constraints arise due to interactions with the environment. From control system specifications, for example referring to required speeds of motion, the timing requirements on the embedded control system can be derived. The speed (or bandwidth) of the closed loop system will provide requirements on the timing of the controller, including the sampling periods and delays that can be allowed. These properties can also be taken into account in the control design, however, providing an additional dependency between the controller and its implementation.
  • Resource constrained implementations. Automotive embedded systems are often highly resource constrained because of the large series being produced. In such applications, trade-offs between the system behavior (quality of service) and the resources required (processing, memory and power) is essential.
  • Distributed systems. Over the last decades, there has been a strong trend to connect stand-alone controllers by networks, forming distributed systems. Another and closely related trend has been modularization, where for example, an electronic control unit is physically integrated into an engine, forming a sort of mechatronic module. Combining the concepts of networks and mechatronic modules makes it possible to reduce both the cabling and the number of connectors, the result of which is facilitated production and increased reliability. Distributed control systems first appeared in process control, and later in the 80s in aerospace, and in the 90s in the automotive industry. Distributed systems are characterized by the mapping problem, i.e. the need to assign functions to different nodes of a distributed system, to define the tasks of the system, and their implementation in software and/or hardware.
  • Tight coupling to the environment. The tight coupling between the control system and the controlled process is manifested in several ways. Apart from aspects related to physical integration and protection against a harsh environment, the control system is also fundamentally related to the controlled process. Typically, models of the environment are used in control design. In many cases, the control algorithms are synthesized from a validated model of the controlled system. In other cases, the controller parameters are tuned based on the overall system behavior. For control systems this creates a dependency between the environment and the control system, creating a kind of contract between these two entities. Another type of environment coupling exists with humans interacting with the embedded control system. A driver “in the loop” is typical for vehicular systems. The situation arises where conflicts can occur – who is deciding the motion of the vehicle at any given point in time? Careful analysis is required and special care has to be given to the human/machine interface.
  • Parallel activities and triggering. Since the real world is truly parallel, there is typically a need to describe and handle several parallel activities. A typical control system normally includes both time- and event-triggered activities. In many cases, time-triggering follows naturally from the development of discrete time (sampled data) functions. However, in other cases the controlled process can be inherently event-triggered. This is the case for inherently sampled systems, one example being control of injection in a combustion engine; the point in time of injection depends on the speed and angular position of the engine parts. Event-triggered functions thus include those who are inherently sampled and other functions who are not dictated or preferably implemented as periodic activities.

Vehicle embedded systems have grown in a bottom-up fashion, from stand-alone functions to distributed functions. New vehicle level functions, for example dealing with active safety, have the characteristic that they take inputs from many sensors, act upon many actuators and span the traditional domains and networks.

All in all, the use of embedded control systems has paved the way for large improvements of machinery in terms of improved performance, flexible tailoring of product variants and by enabling completely new functionality such as for example active safety functionality in cars. As a consequence, product complexity is becoming a crucial issue in system development. Systems integration is today a serious problem in the automotive industry. This increased product complexity calls for more mature engineering approaches including the use of model and component based development.
The Autosar initiative aims at addressing the above issue. The meeting this activity organized aimed at analysing the related technical issues.

Current Results

As expected, the forums organized in the framework of this activity are an important contribution to the interaction between industry and academia in the considered sector. Less expected, they also appear to be a forum where different ARTIST2 clusters meet. This activity therefore plays an important role in NoE integration.

Meeting Beyond AUTOSAR
This meeting was held March 23rd - 24th, 2006 Innsbruck, Austria. It was co-located with the industrial conference Modellierung 2006
The agenda of the meeting can be found at the above URL, as well as the detailed minutes and slides. There were 52 registered participants, among which 15 from industry.

A first ½ day was devoted to the interaction between control and embedded electronics in automotive industry. This was mainly an academic meeting, although experiences and cooperations with automotive industry were reported by some speakers. This part of the meeting was co-organized by the Hart Real-Time, Adaptive Real-Time and Control network activity led by the Control for Embedded Systems cluster.
See it online!

Publications Resulting from these Achievements

  • Group publications involving several ARTIST2 partners
    We list here joint work from teams involved in this activity:

RISE project papers
- Ch. Kossentini and P. Caspi: Approximation, Sampling and Voting in Hybrid Computing Systems. In HSCC06, Sta Barbara, March 2006.
- [ECRTS`04] N. Scaife and P. Caspi. "Integrating Model-Based Design and Preemptive Scheduling in Mixed Time- and Event-Triggered Systems", Proceedings of the 16th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS’04), IEEE Computer Society, pp. 119-126, 2004.
- [EMSOFT`05a] S. Tripakis , C. Sofronis , N. Scaife , P. Caspi. "Semantics-preserving and memory-efficient implementation of inter-task communication on static-priority or EDF schedulers", Proceedings of the 5th ACM international conference on Embedded software, pp. 353-360, September 18-22, 2005, Jersey City, NJ, USA.

SPEEDS project papers (in preparation)
- SPEEDS/HRC partners: Heterogeneous Rich Components meta-model semantics. (This document defines the semantics of the SPEEDS heterogenous component model, allowing to formally combine different aspects of a component, functional and non-functional.)
- SPEEDS/HRC partners: Heterogeneous Rich Components meta-model syntax.

- A. Benveniste, B. Caillaud, L. Carloni, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli. "Tag Machines." Proc. of EMSOFT’2005, W. Wolf Ed., 255-263, Sept. 19-22, 2005.
Razvan Racu, Arne Hamann, Rolf Ernst, Bren Mochocki, Xiaobo Sharon Hu. Methods for Power Optimization in Distributed Embedded Systems with Real-Time Requirements. To be published International Conference on Compilers, Architecture, and Synthesis for Embedded Systems (CASES), Seoul, Korea, October 2006.
- Thomas A. Henzinger and Joseph Sifakis, "The embedded systems design challenge, Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Formal Methods (FM), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, 2006.
- Arkadeb Ghosal, Thomas A. Henzinger, Daniel Iercan, Christoph M. Kirsch, and Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A hierarchical coordination language for interacting real-time tasks, Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT), ACM Press, 2006.
- Chen DeJiu, Torngren Martin, Shi Jianlin, Arzen Karl-Erik, Lonn Henrik, Gerard Sebastien, Stromberg Mikael, Servat David. Model Based Integration in the Development of Embedded Control Systems – a Characterization of Current Research Efforts. To appear in the Proc. of the IEEE International Symposium on Computer-Aided Control Systems Design, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, October 4-6, 2006 (a joint paper involving authors from the ARTIST2 and RTC and Control clusters + industry)
  • Individual partners publications
    - D. Potop-Butucaru, B. Caillaud, A. Benveniste. Concurrency in Synchronous Systems. Formal Methods in System Design, to appear, 2005.
    Arne Hamann, Razvan Racu, Rolf Ernst. A formal approach to robustness maximization of complex heterogeneous embedded systems. To be published International Conference on Hardware - Software Codesign and System Synthesis (CODES), Seoul, Korea, October 2006.
    - Razvan Racu, Arne Hamann, Rolf Ernst. A Formal Approach to Multi-Dimensional Sensitivity Analysis of Embedded Real-Time Systems. In In Proc. of the 18th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS), Dresden, Germany, July 2006.
    - Kai Richter, Marek Jersak, Rolf Ernst. How OEMs and suppliers can tackle the network dimensioning problem. Embedded Real Time Software Congress (ERTS06), Toulouse, France, January 25-27, 2006. Workshop participants from industry and academia (50/50). Focus: real-time issues in avionics and automotive systems.
    - Kai Richter, Rolf Ernst. Real-Time Analysis as a Quality Feature: Automotive Use-Cases and Applications, Embedded World 2006 Fair and Conference. Nuremberg, Germany - February 14-16, 2006. Major European event for digital embedded systems HW and SW.
    - Kai Richter, Marek Jersak, Rolf Ernst. How OEMs and suppliers can face the network dimensioning challenges. Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE) Conference, Special Track Automotive Designer’s Forum, Munich, Germany, March, 2006.
    - Kai Richter, Rolf Ernst. Applying Real-Time Network Research in the Automotive Industry: Lessons Learned and Perspectives, Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS), satellite workshop on Real Time Networks (RTN), Dresden, Germany, July 2006.
    - Richard Anthony, Alexander Leonhardi, Cecilia Ekelin, Dejiu Chen, Martin Törngren, Gerrit de Boer, Isabell Jahnich, Simon Burton, Ola Redell, Alexander Weber, Vasco Vollmer: A Future Dynamically Reconfigurable Automotive Software System, to appear at Elektronik im Kraftfahrzeug, Dresden, Germany, June 27-28 2006
    - A. Metzner und C. Herde. RTSAT - Scheduling Tasks in Distributed Real-Time Systems by Enhanced Satisifiability Checking. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, Work in Progress Session. December 5-8, 2005 Miami, Florida, USA
    - A. Metzner, M. Fränzle, C. Herde und I. Stierand. An Optimal Approach to the Task Allocation Problem on Hierarchical Architectures. In: Proceedings of the 20th IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium. IEEE Computer Society, April 25-29 ,2006 Rhodes Island, Greece
    - G. Pinto, W. Damm und S. Ratschan. Guaranteed termination in the verification of LTL properties of non-linear robust hybrid systems. In: In ATVA Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis 2005. Taipei, Taiwan, October 4-7, 2005, LNCS 3707
    - W. Damm, H. Hungar und E. Olderog. Verification of cooperating traffic agents. International Journal of Control 79 (5). 2006.
    - W. Damm. Component based design of embedded automotive systems. In: Proceedings, AAET 2006, Automatisierungs-, Assistenzsysteme und eingebettete Systeme für Transportmittel 2006.
    From control loops to real-time programs P. Caspi and O. Maler in Handbook of Networked and Embedded Control Systems, Birkhäuser, 2005

Keynotes, Workshops, Tutorials

  • ARTIST2 Workshop: Design Issues in Distributed, Communication-Centric Systems
    DATE Conference, Munich, Germany, 10.3.2006
    Organiser: Bruno Bouyssounouse, Rolf Ernst, Lothar Thiele
    Objective: The workshop presented relevant, innovative, and holistic topics in communication-centric systems, sensor networks, dynamic real-time architecture, distributed computing, minimal operating systems, and self-organisation.
    See it online!
  • ARTIST2 Workshop: Distributed Embedded Systems
    Leiden, Netherlands, 21.11. - 24.11.2005
    Organiser: Lothar Thiele
    Objective: Benchmarking and comparison of different formal analysis approaches
    See it online!
  • Keynote address by Tom Henzinger and Joseph Sifakis: The embedded systems design challenge
    14th International Symposium on Formal Methods (FM)
    August 2006
    We summarize some current trends in embedded systems design and point out some of their characteristics, such as the chasm between analytical and computational models, and the gap between safety-critical and best-effort engineering practices. We call for a coherent scientific foundation for embedded systems design, and we discuss a few key demands on such a foundation: the need for encompassing several manifestations of heterogeneity, and the need for constructivity in design. We believe that the development of a satisfactory Embedded Systems Design Science provides a timely challenge and opportunity for reinvigorating computer science.
  • Tutorial: Supporting predictable design using formal analysis techniques
    ARTES Summer School, Stockholm Schweden, August 21-25 2006.
    Speaker: Arne Hamann and Razvan Racu, Technical University of Braunschweig.
    See it online!
  • Talk: Scheduling Analysis in Practice - Early Lessons Learned
    ARTIST2 Workshop: Distributed Embedded Systems, Leiden, Netherlands - November 21-24th, 2005.
    Speaker: Kai Richter
    See it online!
  • Talk (in german): Zuverlässige und effiziente Integration eingebetteter Systeme - ein Widerspruch?
    Annual Meeting IEEE Computer Society, Wolfsburg Germany, July 2006.
    Speaker: Rolf Ernst, Technical University of Braunschweig.
  • Invited Lecture by Martin Törngren: “Automotive Embedded Systems – research challenges”, Aug. 24, 2006, ARTES summer school (
  • Invited Lecture by Martin Törngren at Mecel (a Swedish subsidiary of Delphi): “Cost-efficient and systematic verification of embedded control systems”, June 14, 2006 Performed at the occasion of starting a new national project between Mecel and KTH.
  • Invited Lecture by Martin Törngren at ENEA: “Automotive Embedded Systems; characteristics, trends and challenges”, May 17, 2006
  • Invited Lecture by Martin Törngren at PLM Forum 2006: “Challenges for PLM of Mechatronic Systems”, Stockholm, May 10, 2006 A forum arranged by Technia AB.
  • Martin Törngren invited panelist for the ARTIST2 workshop: Beyond Autosar, Innsbruck, March 24, 2006.
  • General Keynote : "Quo Vadis, EDA? Reasoning about the Trends and Challenges of Engineering Design Automation" Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli
    EDA Forum
    Hanover, Germany – November 16-18, 2005; Wolfganf Rosenstiel, Chair
    Forum Preface: EDA is facing a complicated situation these days. Shorter product life cycles, higher flexibility and new technological challenges require more and better EDA tools. Additionally, the new application areas towards ubiquitous computing and ambient intelligence demand for a new kind of EDA. On the other hand investment in EDA has a very slow growth, which is surprising, since it was proven recently that design capabilities of enterprises are a decisive factor for a leading position in competitiveness and sustainable profit.
  • Keynote : "Automotive Electronics: Steady Growth for Years to Come" Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli
    ASP-DAC Conference, Yokohama, Japan, Jan. 24-27, 2006
    Conference Chair: F, Hirose
    Presentation of the Conference (part of): On behalf of the Organizing Committee, I would like to welcome you to the Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference 2006 (ASP-DAC 2006). ASP-DAC is a sister conference of DAC, DATE and ICCAD, and it is the 11th event of this conference series. ASP DAC 2006 will be held at Pacifico Yokohama, Japan, from January 24 through 27, 2006, jointly with the Electronic Design and Solution Fair 2006.
    See it online!
  • Keynote : "Innovazione a 360 gradi: l’ Elettronica del Futuro" Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli
    II Giornata della Innovazione, Confindustria, Roma March 3, 2006, Pasquale Pistorio Organizer
    The goal of the meeting was to discuss the role of innovation in industry with particular emphasis on embedded and networked systems. The audience was about 4,000 industrialists in all sectors in Italy. Outcome was a series of new interactions with white goods industry such as Indesit, the largest company in the domain in Europe.
    Invited Talk and Organization of a Special Session on Networks: Is “Network” the Next “Big Idea” in Design? Network Paradigms in Systems, Sensors, & Silicon. Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli
  • Date 2006, Munich, Germany, March 6-10, 2006
    In the last decade, we started to design blocks with millions of atomic elements transistors, gates, lines of code. As complexity continues to grow, we are moving away from creating each element from scratch, toward methodologies that emphasize connecting the right elements, in the right communication patterns, to achieve the right functionality. This view of design is being called the network paradigm. Complex component interactions can create a range of amazing behaviors, some useful, some unwanted, some even dangerous. To manage these, a “science” for network design is evolving, applicable in some surprising areas. In this session, we survey three application domains, and discus the modeling, analysis, and design challenges involved. From large-scale hardware/software systems, to dynamically adaptive sensor networks, to network-on-chip architectures, these ideas are finding wide application. Is the “network” the next “big idea” for our community?
  • Keynote: Challenges and Opportunities for System Theory in Embedded Controller Design, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli
    2nd IFAC Conference on Analysis and Design of Hybrid Systems, Alghero, Sardinia, Italy – June 7-9, 2006
    Abstract: Embedded controllers are essential in today electronic systems to assure that the behaviour of complex systems as cars, airplanes, trains, building security management systems, is compliant to strict safety constraints. I will review the evolution of embedded systems and the challenges that must be faced in their design. I will also present methodologies aimed at simplifying and speeding the design process. The role of hybrid systems in the development of embedded controllers will be outlined. Future applications such as wireless sensor networks in an industrial plant were also presented.
    See it online!
  • TUTORIAL AND PANEL – Communication Methods and Networking in Automotive Systems, Alberto Sangiovanni Vincentelli
    Date 2006, Munich, Germany, March 6-10, 2006
    The purpose of this special session is to evaluate bottlenecks and drawbacks of today’s automotive electronic and car network systems, as well as to discuss and envisage new concepts for future system design in automotive electronics and their networks. Both aspects, hardware design and tool-integration into existing development tools will be discussed. The main emphasis is on architectures, design-flow, tool-development, applications and system design.

    The special session is addressed to hardware and system engineers as well as to researchers. In a panel, selected world-wide specialists in the field of automotive electronics will discuss the demands and interests of industry on novel technologies and system and research activities for future automotive systems.
    See it online!
  • Tutorial: Tools for Hybrid Embedded Systems: Modeling, Verification, and Design
    Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli
    Design Automation Conference, July 24-28, San Francisco, USA
    This tutorial gives a detailed overview of the current landscape of tools for the specification, design, and validation of hybrid embedded systems.
    The basic principles of hybrid systems (systems that feature both continuous and discrete time components) modeling will be presented as the common theoretical underpinning for all the tools. The core of the tutorial will be live demonstrations of about a dozen tools that have been developed in the industry and academia.
    For each tool, a brief presentation of its syntactic and semantic characteristics will be followed by a practical exposition of how to use it to model and design some simple, but challenging "running examples", thereby showing its advantages and limitations. This will provide a sound mechanism to compare the tools by illustrating their differences in terms of expressiveness, usability, power, and performance. Some industrial examples will be modeled, presented, and discussed.
    See it online!

ARTIST2 Participants: Expertise and Roles

  • Team Leader: Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli (PARADES, Italy)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: strong interaction with automotive, design software and semiconductor industry (co-founder of Cadence and Synopsys); expertise in design flows, tools and modelling methodologies with particular attention to Hard Real-Time; Platform-Based Design and Metropolis design framework for integration of design processes from OEMs to suppliers involving functional and non functional aspects.
    Role in the activity: organization and planning of meetings.
  • Team Leader: Albert Benveniste (INRIA, France)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: synchronous languages and heterogeneous systems
    modelling and deployment.
    Role in the activity: organization and planning of meetings.
  • Team Leader: Hermann Kopetz (TU Vienna, Austria)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: inventor of the TTA concept.
    Role in the activity: organization and planning of meetings.
  • Team Leader: Werner Damm (OFFIS, Germany)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: embedded system modelling and validation, deep
    involvement in cooperation with the automotive industries.
    Role in the activity: organization and planning of meetings.
  • Team Leader: Paul Caspi (Verimag, France)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: synchronous languages and heterogeneous systems
    modelling and deployment; tight cooperation with Airbus.
    Role in the activity: organization and planning of meetings.
  • Team Leader: Petru Eles (Linköping University, Sweden)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: schedulability analysis for heterogeneous systems.
    Role in the activity: organization and planning of meetings.
  • Team Leader: Tom Henzinger (EPFL, Switzerland)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: development of abstract programming models for realtime computing [Giotto: time-triggered; xGiotto: both time- and event-triggered].
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team Leader: Rolf Ernst (University Braunschweig, Germany)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: formal performance models for networks-on-chip.
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team leader: Francois Terrier (CEA, France)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: Expertise: Modeling and analysis of embedded systems,
    UML development.
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team leader: Pierre Combes (FTRD, France)
    Expertise: Component modeling, Service integration and interference, performance
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team leader: Karl-Erik Arzen (Lund University, Sweden)
    Expertise: relations between control and embedded software, effect of architecture on the performance of control, control techniques for architecture studies.
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team leader: Martin Törngren (KTH, Sweden)
    Expertise: relations between control and embedded software, effect of architecture on
    the performance of control, control techniques for architecture studies, mechatronics.
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.

Affiliated Participants: Expertise and Roles

  • Team Leader: Jan Romberg (TU Munich, Germany)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: synchronous dataflow notations and tools, distributed
    architectures in automobile.
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team Leader: Luciano Lavagno (Politecnico di Torino, Italy)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: IC design and algorithms for synchronous and asynchronous design.
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team Leader: Francois Pilarski (Airbus France)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: avionics industrial case study.
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team Leader: Heiko Dörr (DaimlerChrysler, Germany)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: automotive industrial case study.
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team Leader: Stephan Kowalewski (RWTH Aachen, Germany)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: automotive industrial case study.
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team Leader: Jakob Axelsson (Volvo, Sweden)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: automotive industrial case study.
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team Leader: Christofer Kirsch (University of Salzburg, Austria)
    Areas of this team’s expertise: development of abstract programming models for realtime computing [Giotto: time-triggered; xGiotto: both time- and event-triggered].
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team leader: Ivica Crnkovic (MdH, Sweden)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: component models, component-based software engineering.
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team leader: Marius Minea (Institute e-Austria Timisoara, Romania)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: Formal verification, specification of timed systems.

    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team leader: Bernhard Steffen (Dortmund University, Germany)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: tool integration, modeling and verification, generation of models of communicating systems.
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team leader: Anders Ravn (Aalborg, Danmark)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: modeling and verification of timed systems.
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team leader: Peter Eriksson (ABB Automation Technology, Sweden)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: Construction of large complex embedded systems.
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team leader: Dominique Potier (Thales R&T, France)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: Construction of large complex embedded systems, Model driven development
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team leader: Alan Moore (ARTiSAN Software)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: technologies for embedded systems engineering, UML
    tool suites.
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.
  • Team leader: Luca Carloni (Columbia University)
    Areas of his team’s expertise: tool integration, modeling and verification, design
    methodology, communication-based design, latency insensitive protocols.
    Role in the activity: discussion of and participation to meetings.

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