Artist2 Summer School in China 2008

July 12-18, 2008       Shanghai, China organised and funded by ARTIST 

Programme & Slides

Model-Based Testing for Embedded Systems

July 14th
Prof. Ed Brinksma
Embedded Systems Institute, Netherlands
slides available


The lecture on model-based testing for embedded systems will consist of four parts. First, we provide a general introduction to model-based testing, where we introduce basic terminology and concepts, and relate our approach to other model-based approaches to testing. In the second part we present the basic theory for the derivation of functional tests from models in the form of input/output transition systems. An important feature of the theory is that absence of response by an implementation is treated as a special kind of output, known as quiescence. We demonstrate the test derivation and excution tool TorX that is based on this theory. TorX supports so-called on-line test derivation, in which the continuation of a test case are calculated during its execution. In the third part we show how both theory and tool can be extended to include real-time behaviour in specifications, implementations and tests. The fourth, and final part of our lecture is devoted to the problem of test selection and coverage, i.e. the problem of how to express and measure the quality of finite test suites of selected test cases.

Networks for Embedded Control

July 15th
Prof. Luis Almeida
University of Aveiro, Portugal


The course will address the growing role of networks in control applications, from embedded control to process control, which led to the wide dissemination of distributed computer control systems (DCCS). Starting from the network, which is the central component in a DCCS, the course will focus on communication issues and associated timing aspects. This will allow understanding the impact that architectural options in the network side have on the services delivered to the application. Then, the course will look at the application side of DCCS and analyse the timing requirements and the impact of deviations. This latter aspect will build the motivation for higher operational flexibility in current DCCS, together with higher resource efficiency. The course will then address the impact imposed on the system architecture by such requirement for higher flexibility. Finally, several examples, real and simulated, will be used to illustrate the concepts presented along the course.

Designing a Compositional Real-Time Operating System

July 16th
Prof. Christoph Kirsch
University of Salzburg, Austria


This lecture is about the design and implementation of an open-source, real-time operating system called Tiptoe. A key feature of Tiptoe is that its process model is fully compositional in a temporal and spatial sense. For example, Tiptoe processes read sensors, compute something, allocate and free memory, write actuators but also access (virtual) disks and networks, all in real time, without affecting each others’ real-time behavior. Moreover, the Tiptoe system can predict in constant time remaining resource capacities such as the available CPU time, memory, and I/O bandwidth for end-to-end real-time guarantees on all relevant process activities. The strong temporal and spatial isolation of Tiptoe processes will enable more principled and scalable real-time and embedded software engineering. There are already encouraging research results obtained with our prototype implementation of a compositional and (constant-time) predictable, real-time process scheduler and memory management system, which, unlike existing approaches, also guarantees low bounds on memory fragmentation in real time. The lecture will give an overview of the Tiptoe system and then cover design principles and experimental results of the process model and scheduler as well as the memory management and I/O systems.

Predictable Response Times in Event-driven Real-time Systems

July 17th
Prof. Michael Gonzalez Harbour
University of Cantabria, Spain


This lecture is focused on the methods used to schedule event-driven real-time systems and to guarantee the predictability of their response times.
We will start by looking at simple single processor systems scheduled with fixed priorities, and we will then progress through dynamic scheduling and distributed systems.

We will briefly discuss the MAST modelling and analysis tools for schedulability analysis.

We will also review advanced flexible scheduling techniques that allow protection among different components of a complex application and provide the designer with services that facilitate building real-time applications at a higher level of abstraction.

Timed Automata and Extensions for Modeling, Verification and Synthesis

July 18th
Associate Prof. Jean François Raskin
Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium


In this course, we will first study the model of timed automata (as introduced by Rajeev Alur and David Dill) for modeling real-time systems at an abstract level.
We will study the foundations of that formalism as well as efficient data structures and algorithms which are used for their verification and implemented in tools like UppAal.

We will also consider the synthesis of timed controllers for timed automata. Then we will introduce weighted timed automata that extend timed automata with a notion of cost, and study the optimal-reachability problem and the optimal-control problem for those extended timed automata.

Daily Schedule
  • 8:45 welcome
  • 9:00 Lectures
  • 10:30 break
  • 11:00 Lectures
  • 12:30 lunch
  • 14:00 Lectures
  • 15:30 break
  • 16:00 Lectures
  • 17:30 close

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